Molar pregnancy: symptoms and treatment

Molar pregnancy: symptoms and treatment

Molar pregnancy is an abnormality in the placenta, caused by a problem that occurred during fertilization when the sperm penetrates the egg. Molar pregnancies are very rare and occur once per 1,000 pregnancies.

What is molar pregnancy

A molar pregnancy is the result of a genetic error that occurred during the fertilization process, which results in abnormal tissue growth at the level of the uterus.

Molar pregnancy it rarely involves the development of an embryo and the growth of this tissue is much faster than in the case of normal fetal growth. There are two types of molar pregnancy, complete and partial.

Complete molar pregnancy

The complete molar pregnancy has only placental parts (there is no baby) and they appear when the sperm fertilizes an empty egg.

Because the egg is empty, the baby cannot be formed. Placenta increases and produces the hormone of pregnancy hCG. Unfortunately, an ultrasound will show that there is no fetus, but only the placenta.

Partial molar pregnancy

Partial molar pregnancy occurs when the mass contains both abnormal cells and an embryo with severe defects. In this case, the fetus will be defeated by the rapidly growing abnormal mass.

A very rare form of a partial molar pregnancy occurs when twins are conceived, when only one embryo develops normally, while the other embryo becomes a molar pregnancy. In this case, the healthy embryo will be consumed at a rapid rate by abnormal growths.

The risk of molar pregnancy occurs in women over the age of 40, those who have a molar pregnancy in medical history or those who have suffered a pregnancy loss.

Symptoms and diagnosis in case of molar pregnancy

The symptoms of molar pregnancy may consist of the appearance of vaginal bleeding, the sensation of nausea and vomiting, the development of rare complications such as thyroid problems. Also, early preeclampsia, increased levels of hCG and the absence of fetal movements or heart rhythm of the fetus may be signs of molar pregnancy.

The diagnosis in case of molar pregnancy can be made through a pelvic gynecological examination, which can reveal a enlarged or miscellaneous uterus, enlarged ovaries and abnormally high levels of hCG pregnancy hormone.

Treatment and chances of recurrence in case of molar pregnancy

Most molar pregnancies will end spontaneously and the tissue will be removed. A molar pregnancy can be removed by curettage, dilation and evacuation or sometimes it can be eliminated by drug treatment.

About 90% of women who had a molar pregnancy did not require treatment after pregnancy was eliminated. There will be a series of procedures that will follow the levels of hCG that can have a monthly frequency for a period of 6 months, at the doctor's recommendation.

This observation procedure aims to ensure that the molar pregnancy has been completely eliminated because traces of molar pregnancy may recur and may pose a cancer risk to other parts of the body.

Pregnancy should be avoided for one year after removal of molar pregnancy, all contraceptive methods, except intrauterine contraceptive devices can be used.

After a molar pregnancy, the chances of recurrence are 1-2%, if the molar pregnancy has had no complications.

Emotional state after molar pregnancy

Although the removal of a molar pregnancy does not represent an interruption in the development of a fetus (as in the case of normal pregnancy interruption), it is still a loss. Even in cases where the embryo is present, it has no chance of developing into a fetus. Most women find that they have a molar pregnancy after pregnancy is discovered. Dreams, plans and hopes are shattered at once, so it is a significant loss.

There will have to be a period of sadness and healing. What makes this type of loss different from losing a normal pregnancy is the continuing care for mother's health, which means that subsequent appointments to the doctor for monitoring are extremely important and should not be missed.

Tags Molar pregnancy Pregnancy problems