Macrosomia is a term given to newborns who are overweight at birth. The average weight of a baby at birth is 3-3.5, even 4 kg. Everything over 4 kg goes into this condition called macrosomia. This presents risks both to the mother and to the baby, both during pregnancy and at the time of birth or afterwards!
Can the diagnosis be made before birth?
Macrosomia is also known as "big baby syndrome". The diagnosis is made only after birth and occurs in 10% of births. It is quite difficult for doctors to detect this condition when the baby is still in the womb. They can make some approximations based on certain information obtained from certain prenatal tests or analyzes. For example, when pregnant with an ultrasound, a probable weight of the fetus can be estimated, but never reliable.
In addition, the evolution of the baby's weight cannot be predicted until the time of birth. Also, the size of your mother's belly may indicate that you have a baby, but the most accurate diagnosis is when you give birth.
What are the causes of heavy birth weight?
There are several causes and risk factors that can lead to the birth of a large child: genetic factors seem to be the most responsible in this case (so if you were overweight it is very likely that your baby will have it); uncontrolled or untreated gestational diabetes or diabetes (chronic form of this condition); obesity (very high weight gain during pregnancy); post-natal birth (exceeding the pregnancy term); sex of the child (boys are born with a greater weight than girls); if you have previously given birth to a heavy baby.
Don't panic if you sign up for one of the risk factors listed above! It does not mean that you have to give birth to a very big baby! There are mothers who give birth to macrosome children without being included in any of the above risk factors. In addition, most of the causes that lead to the appearance of macrosomia remain unknown.
What complications can occur in the mother and baby?
Excessive weight gain of the fetus in the intrauterine cavity causes risks first of all in the mother: obstetric complications may occur at birth; prolonged work; perineal rupture; bleeding; coccyx trauma; premature birth; Caesarean section (and the associated risks). Complications that may occur in the fetus are: obstetric trauma at birth; severe asphyxia; cranial hematoma; clavicle fracture; shoulder dystocia (blockage of the shoulders during vaginal birth); paralysis of brachial plexus; neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
To the extent that the macrosomia of the baby affects the health of the mother or even his, the doctor may resort to various forms of treatment to cure the complication. If you have clavicle rupture or shoulder dystocia (one of the most common complications), a deterioration of the nerves of the shoulder and arm or throat may also occur. He could wear a sectional support for steady neck and shoulder support. Also, if asphyxiation occurs at birth, oxygen therapy is used. Surgery can be performed in case of fractures or other complications.
How can you prevent macrosomia?
Although sometimes it appears without being able to do anything in this regard, there are some essential measures by which you can reduce the risk of its appearance: try to have a normal weight at the time of child's conception; maintain normal weight throughout pregnancy; adopts a healthy diet and sports as often as possible during pregnancy; go to all the prenatal checks recommended by the doctor (you will be tested for many of the risk factors that could lead to the onset of the condition); If you know you have diabetes or you have gestational diabetes in pregnancy, you need to make sure you get insulin and take care of the diet.
Tags Baby weight birth Weight pregnancy